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Exceptions may be granted in the form of Article II exceptions. Members could apply for such exemptions before the agreement came into force. New derogations may only be granted to new members at the time of accession or, in the case of current members, by a derogation under Article IX:3 of the WTO agreement. All exceptions are subject to review; they should not, in principle, last more than 10 years. In addition, the GATS allows groups of members to enter into economic integration agreements or to mutually recognize regulatory standards, certificates and others when certain conditions are met. While national governments have the option of excluding certain services from liberalisation under the GATS, they are also under pressure from international trade interests not to exclude any “commercial” service. Important utilities, such as water and electricity, are most often linked to consumer purchases and are therefore clearly “commercially supplied”. The same is true of many health and education services that some countries are supposed to “export” as profitable industries. [6] Each WTO member must have a specific timetable of commitments specifying the services for which the member guarantees market access and national treatment, as well as possible restrictions. The calendar can also be used to make additional commitments, for example. B with respect to the implementation of certain standards or regulatory principles. Commitments are made for each of the four types of service delivery. Members are free to tailor the coverage of the sector and the content of these commitments as they see fit.

Commitments therefore generally reflect the objectives and constraints of national policy as a whole and in different sectors. While some members have provided fewer than a handful of services, others have adopted market access and national processing disciplines in more than 120 services out of a total of 160. Like the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which deals with trade in goods, the GATS has two main objectives: first, to ensure that all signatories are treated fairly in terms of access to foreign markets; and second, the promotion of a gradual liberalisation of trade in services (over time, removal of trade barriers, in order to allow greater participation in the markets of the other). No no. The results of the sectoral negotiations are specific new commitments and/or exemptions for the sector concerned. They are therefore not legally independent of other sectoral obligations and are not different agreements from the GATS. New obligations and exemptions from the MFN were included in existing lists and exception lists in separate GATS protocols. The presentation of this report is organized as follows: Section II deals with general principles and obligations, including dispute resolution and institutional rules. Section III analyses, sector by sector, the specific sectoral provisions contained in the annexes, decisions, declarations and understanding. Sections IV and V contain some brief comments on the timing of commitments or the MFN exemption lists. Some activist groups believe that GATS risks undermining the ability and authority of governments to regulate commercial activities within their own borders, which will lead to the flight of power from the commercial interests of citizens.

In 2003, the GATSwatch network published a critical opinion, supported by more than 500 organizations in 60 countries. [1] At the same time, countries are not required to enter into international agreements such as the GATS. For countries that like to attract trade and investment, GATS adds a degree of transparency and legal predictability. Legal barriers to trade in services may have legitimate political reasons, but they can also be an effective instrument for large-scale corruption. [2] The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a World Trade Organization (WTO) treaty that has entered into